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Associated Abnormalities

The following problems may be seen in those patients with open spina bifida (meningocele and myelomeningocele).
Paralysis affecting the legs
Incontinence (no bladder or bowel control)
Hydrocephalus (80% of patients with open spina bifida have hydrocephalus)
Chiari Malformation (by definition all patients have a Chiari 2 malformation)
Syringomyelia (a significant minority of patients develop a cyst in the spinal cord)